Developing diagnostics and treatments for neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) presents challenges due to their complex pathogenesis and gradual progression. However, emerging advanced in vitro systems offer alternatives to traditional animal models. In this review, we examine the interconnected pathogenic features of various NDs, discuss the use of microfluidic chips as a strategy for modeling NDs, and introduce organoid-on-a-chip as an advanced model. Furthermore, we explore the application of these models in academic and industrial drug development. The integration of microfluidic chips, stem cells, and biotechnological devices holds promise for providing valuable insights into biomedical research and for developing diagnostic and therapeutic solutions for NDs.

Keywords: Organoids, organ-on-chip, neurodegenerative diseases