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Scientists have uncovered a previously unknown role of the brain in regulating the immune system. They have identified cells in the brainstem that sense signals from the body’s periphery and act as central controllers of the inflammatory response. This discovery, published in Nature, highlights the brain’s ability to balance pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, offering potential for treating conditions like autoimmune diseases. The finding, described as a black-swan event by immunologist Ruslan Medzhitov, reveals a new layer of biological complexity in brain function that was previously unrecognized.

Keywords: immune system regulation, brain signaling, pro inflammatory signals, anti-inflammatory signals, autoimmune diseases